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Table of Contents
EDITORIAL
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 35  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 431-433

Hemodynamic effects of alveolar recruitment maneuvres in the operating room: Proceed with caution


Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain, Tata Memorial Hospital, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication13-Dec-2019

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Sheila N Myatra
Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain, Tata Memorial Hospital, Dr. Ernest Borges Road, Parel, Mumbai - 400 012, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/joacp.JOACP_223_19

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How to cite this article:
Myatra SN. Hemodynamic effects of alveolar recruitment maneuvres in the operating room: Proceed with caution. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2019;35:431-3

How to cite this URL:
Myatra SN. Hemodynamic effects of alveolar recruitment maneuvres in the operating room: Proceed with caution. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Feb 26];35:431-3. Available from: http://www.joacp.org/text.asp?2019/35/4/431/272933



Atelectasis occurs in 100% of subjects undergoing general anesthesia, leading to impairment in oxygenation even in patients with normal lungs.[1] The main mechanisms for the development of atelectasis under general anesthesia, are compression atelectasis, absorption atelectasis and impaired surfactant function.[2],[3] General anesthesia and neuromuscular blockade restrict the movement of the diaphragm, leading to collapse of dependent lung regions. When the flux of oxygen enters the blood from the alveoli faster than nitrogen returns to the alveoli, (as oxygen diffuses faster than nitrogen), the alveoli shrink and collapse. This is exacerbated by high concentrations of oxygen. Surfactant impairment may be due to injurious mechanical ventilation settings and some anesthetic agents. In addition, the sigh reflex is abolished under anesthesia, resulting in loss of the inherent ability to mitigate atelectasis.[3],[4],[5]

Atelectasis produces adverse consequences including, decreased compliance, intrapulmonary shunting and increases the susceptibility to lung injury. It is a major cause of postoperative hypoxemia, respiratory failure and pneumonia, and is associated with a prolonged ICU and hospital stay.[4],[6] Therefore, intraoperative strategies to prevent or reduce atelectasis may improve perioperative outcomes.

The use of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP), lower FiO2 and alveolar recruitment maneuvres (ARMs) are effective in preventing atelectasis. The use of higher tidal volume (TV), high plateau pressures and no PEEP, are associated with lung injury even in patients with healthy lungs.[5] Futier et al. in a randomized study in 400 patient undergoing abdominal surgery, showed a significant reduction in postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) when patients receiving intraoperative lung protective ventilation (IOLPV) using TV6-8 mL/kg; PEEP 6-8 cm H2O and anARM were compared to TV of 10-12 mL/kg with no PEEP or ARM.[7] The PROVHILO trial, a randomised multicenter in 900 patients undergoing abdominal surgery, found no difference in PPCs when 12 cm H2O PEEP was compared to 2 cm H2O or lower PEEP.[8] The optimal PEEP level is probably somewhere between these values and further studies should address this.

The effects of an ARM leading to recruitment of collapsed alveoli and improvement of arterial oxygenation are short lived, as atelectasis may recur within 40 minutes.[9] Thus, the benefits of ARMs may be prolonged by performing repeated manoeuvres. A systematic review concluded that ARMs followed by the use of PEEP should be routinely used following induction, during maintenance of general anesthesia and when oxygen saturation falls.[4] In patients undergoing robotic prostatectomy, the incidence of intraoperative oxygen desaturation and postoperative atelectasis reduced in patients ventilated with TV 6-8 mL/kg and a PEEP 5 cm, with the use of ARMs compared to without ARM.[10] ARMs combined with conventional ventilation (TV 10 mL/kg; PEEP 0 cm H2O) are associated with more PPCs compared to ventilation with TV 6 mL/kg and PEEP 5 cm H2O without ARMs.[11] These studies show that RMs confer a benefit when used as part of IOLPV package, but not when used alone or with conventional ventilation.

Although ARMs improve oxygenation, there can be adverse cardiovascular effects inflicted by the increased intrathoracic pressures which decreases the venous return, leading to a decrease in the left ventricular end-diastolic areas and stroke volume (SV).[12] These hemodynamic effects of ARMs depended both on the level and type of ARM applied and on the lung properties.[13] Broadly there are two ways of performing an ARM: sustained inflation of the lungs up to 40 seconds to a defined peak inspiratory pressure or by a stepwise increment in PEEP.[4] The hemodynamic outcomes of ARM in anesthetised patients have not been much studied. Two studies in hemodynamically stable cardiac patients, using ARM with sustained lung inflation, showed a significant reduction in cardiac output and left ventricular end-diastolic area.[14],[15] In obese patients under general anesthesia, a strategy of higher PEEP with ARMs versus lower PEEP did not show any difference in PPCs. However, intraoperative hypotension was more frequent in the high PEEP group, suggesting that some amount of permissive atelectasis should be accepted.[16] Biais et al. showed that the magnitude of SV decrease (20% versus 43%) during an ARM could predict preload responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients in the operating room.[17] This study indirectly shows that the hemodynamic effects of ARM may be more pronounced in preload dependent patients. The cardiovascular effects of different ARMs have not been compared.

In the current issue of the journal, Hanouz JL, et al. conducted a single centre observational study to compare hemodynamic effects of CPAP (ARMCPAP) and stepwise increase and decrease in PEEP (ARMPEEP) on the SV in 37 adult patients undergoing vascular surgery who were fluid non-responders. The patients were ventilated using a controlled ventilation mode with TV of 6 to 8 ml.kg−1 and PEEP +5 cmH2O. The changes in SV measured during ARMs were more pronounced in the ARMCPAP group (−39 ± 20%) as compared to the ARMPEEP group (−15 ± 22%; P = 0.002).[18] This is the first study which compares the hemodynamic effects of two different ARMs in patients under general anesthesia. The main limitations of the study are the small sample size and that it was not randomized. In addition, echocardiography was not performed to determine the effect of the ARMs on the ventricular function. The findings of this pilot study are important, because they highlight that the magnitude of hemodynamic effects are different with different ARMs. These findings should prompt randomized studies comparing the hemodynamic effects of different ARMs in patients under anesthesia.

In conclusion, ARMs are useful in preventing atelectasis. The benefit of ARMs is not when used alone, rather when incorporated into a package of IOLPV. Adverse hemodynamic effects of intraoperative ARMs should be anticipated. These effects are more marked in preload-dependent patients; hence, preload optimisation should be considered before performing an ARM. The decrease in SV was more pronounced during ARM using brief CPAP than using stepwise increase and decrease in PEEP in this pilot study. Future studies should help identify which ARM produces lesser hemodynamic effects and their impact on short- and long-term outcomes. Until such time, ARMs in the operating room should be performed with extreme caution, under close monitoring.



 
  References Top

1.
Brismar B, Hedenstierna G, Lundquist H, Strandberg A, SvenssonBrismar B, Hedenstierna G, et al. Pulmonary densities during anesthesia with muscular relaxation–a proposal of atelectasis. Anesthesiology 1985;62:422-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Duggan M, Kavanagh BP. Pulmonary atelectasis: A pathogenic perioperative entity. Anesthesiology 2005;102:838-54.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Magnusson L, Spahn DR. New concepts of atelectasis during general anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 2003;91:61-72.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Hartland BL, Newell TJ, Damico N. Alveolar recruitment maneuvers under general anesthesia: A systematic review of the literature. Respir Care 2015;60:609-20.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
O'Gara B, Talmor D. Perioperative lung protective ventilation. BMJ 2018;362:k3030.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Fernandez-Bustamante A, Frendl G, Sprung J, Kor DJ, Subramaniam B, Martinez Ruiz R, et al. Postoperative pulmonary complications, early mortality, and hospital stay following noncardiothoracic surgery: A multicenter study by the perioperative research network investigators. JAMA Surg 2017;152:157-66.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Futier E, Constantin JM, Paugam-Burtz C, Pascal J, Eurin M, Neuschwander A, et al. A trial of intraoperative low-tidal-volume ventilation in abdominal surgery. N Engl J Med 2013;369:428-37.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Hemmes SN, Gama de Abreu M, Pelosi P, Schultz MJ, PROVE Network Investigators for the Clinical Trial Network of the European Society of Anaesthesiology. High versus low positive end-expiratory pressure during general anaesthesia for open abdominal surgery (PROVHILO trial): A multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2014;384:495-503.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Rothen HU, Sporre B, Engberg G, Wegenius G, Hedenstierna G. Reexpansion of atelectasis during general anaesthesia may have a prolonged effect. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1995;39:118-25.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Choi ES, Oh AY, In CB, Ryu JH, Jeon YT, Kim HG. Effects of recruitment manoeuvre on perioperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing robotic assisted radical prostatectomy: A randomised single-blinded trial. PLoS One 2017;12:e0183311.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Park SJ, Kim BG, Oh AH, Han SH, Han HS, Ryu JH. Effects of intraoperative protective lung ventilation on postoperative pulmonary complications in patients with laparoscopic surgery: Prospective, randomized and controlled trial. Surg Endosc 2016;30:4598-606.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Lovas A, Szakmány T. Haemodynamic effects of lung recruitment manoeuvres. Biomed Res Int 2015;2015:478970.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Lim SC, Adams AB, Simonson DA, Dries DJ, Broccard AF, Hotchkiss JR, et al. Transient hemodynamic effects of recruitment maneuvers in three experimental models of acute lung injury. Crit Care Med 2004;32:2378-84.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Nielsen J, Ostergaard M, Kjaergaard J, Tingleff J, Berthelsen PG, Nygard E, et al. Lung recruitment maneuver depresses central hemodynamics in patients following cardiac surgery. Intensive Care Med 2005;31:1189-94.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Celebi S, Köner Ö, Menda F, Korkut K, Suzer K, Cakar N. The pulmonary and hemodynamic effects of two different recruitment maneuvers after cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2007;104:384-90.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Writing Committee for the PROBESE Collaborative Group of the PROtectiveVEntilation Network (PROV Enet) for the Clinical Trial Network of the European Society of Anaesthesiology, Bluth T, SerpaNeto A, Schultz MJ, Pelosi P, Gama de Abreu M. Effect of intraoperative high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with recruitment maneuversvslow peep on postoperative pulmonary complications in obese patients: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2019;321:2292-2305.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Biais M, Lanchon R, Sesay M, Le Gall L, Pereira B, Futier E, et al. Changes in stroke volume induced by lung recruitment maneuver predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients in the operating room. Anesthesiology 2016;126:260-7.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Hanouz JL, Coquerel A, Persyn C, Radenac D, Gérard JL, Fischer MO. Changes in stroke volume during an alveolar recruitment maneuvers through a stepwise increase in positive end expiratory pressure and transient continuous positive airway pressure in anesthetized patients. A prospective observational pilot study. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2019;35:453-9.  Back to cited text no. 18
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