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October-December 2018
Volume 34 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 431-570

Online since Thursday, January 3, 2019

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EDITORIAL  

Ongoing quest for a better predictor of difficult airway p. 431
Rakesh Garg
DOI:10.4103/0970-9185.249302  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

A comparative analysis of femoral nerve block with adductor canal block following total knee arthroplasty: A systematic literature review p. 433
Yugal Karkhur, Ramneek Mahajan, Abhimanyu Kakralia, Amol Prabhakar Pandey, Mukul Chandra Kapoor
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_198_18  
Background: Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty suffer from moderate-to-severe postoperative pain resulting in immobility-related complications and prolonged hospitalization. Femoral nerve block is associated with reduction in the quadriceps strength and increasing incidence of falls. Adductor canal block has been shown to be as effective as femoral nerve block without causing quadriceps weakness. Objectives: To compare outcomes of studies comparing adductor canal block and femoral nerve block in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty. Data Sources: Original articles, published between July 2013 and April 2017, comparing the above interventions. Study Eligibility Criteria, Participants, and Interventions: Comparison of outcome measures of all original articles shortlisted by the PUBMED and Google Scholar databases search using key words, “adductor canal block; femoral nerve block; total knee arthroplasty; total knee replacement.” Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods: The primary outcome measures reviewed were: pain scores; interventional failure; post-operative opioid consumption; patient fall or near fall during postoperative rehabilitation; and length of stay. Results: The opioid consumption was found to be comparable with both the interventions on the first and second postoperative day. Patients administered adductor canal block had better quadriceps power, longer ambulation distance, and shorter length of hospital stay. Limitations: Of the studies reviewed five were retrospective and thus data quality amongst the studies may have been compromised. Conclusions and Implications of Key Findings: Mobilization and ambulation, which are both important for recovery after total knee arthroplasty are both inhibited less by adductor canal block.
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Strategies for prevention of lower limb post-amputation pain: A clinical narrative review Highly accessed article p. 439
Vanita Ahuja, Deepak Thapa, Babita Ghai
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_126_17  
Postamputation limb pain or phantom limb pain (PLP) develops due to the complex interplay of peripheral and central sensitization. The pain mechanisms are different during the initial phase following amputation as compared with the chronic PLP. The literature describes extensively about the management of established PLP, which may not be applicable as a preventive strategy for PLP. The novelty of the current narrative review is that it focuses on the preventive strategies of PLP. The institution of preoperative epidural catheter prior to amputation and its continuation in the immediate postoperative period reduced perioperative opioid consumption (Level II). Optimized preoperative epidural or intravenous patient–controlled analgesia starting 48 hours and continuing for 48 hours postoperatively decreased PLP at 6 months (Level II). Preventive role of epidural LA with ketamine (Level II) reduced persistent pain at 1 year and LA with calcitonin decreased PLP at 12 months (Level II). Peripheral nerve catheters have opioid sparing effect in the immediate postoperative period in postamputation patients (Level I), but evidence is low for the prevention of PLP (Level III). Gabapentin did not reduce the incidence or intensity of postamputation pain (Level II). The review in related context mentions evidence regarding therapeutic role of gabapentanoids, peripheral nerve catheters, and psychological therapy in established PLP. In future, randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up of patients receiving epidural analgesia, perioperative peripheral nerve catheters, oral gabapentanoids, IV ketamine, or mechanism-based modality for prevention of PLP as primary outcome are required.
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Meloxicam in the management of post-operative pain: Narrative review p. 450
Alex Bekker, Carolyn Kloepping, Shemille Collingwood
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_133_18  
Oral formulations of meloxicam, a preferential cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, have long been used to treat osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, as well as various pain syndromes of skeletomuscular origin (e.g., low back pain). However, these preparations are rarely indicated for the treatment of acute pain due to a poor dissolution rate and consequently a slow onset of action. The recent introduction of an intravenous (IV) NanoCrystal Colloidal Dispersion formulation opens up the possibility of using this drug during the perioperative period. The present review summarizes the pharmacologic properties of meloxicam, including its pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and tolerability. In addition, we critically examined a number of recently completed clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy and safety of meloxicam IV in the treatment of post-operative pain. Literature retrieval was performed through PubMed and Medline (through March 2018) using combinations of the terms meloxicam, acute pain, and pharmacology. In addition, bibliographical information, including contributory unpublished data, was requested from the company developing the drug. Clinical trials suggest that single IV doses of 30 mg meloxicam significantly reduce post-operative pain as well as opioid requirements. We conclude that meloxicam IV is an effective and well-tolerated analgesic agent for the management of moderate to severe post-operative pain.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Peripheral nerve blocks for above knee amputation in high-risk patients Highly accessed article p. 458
Rajkumar Chandran, Zhi Yuen Beh, Fung Chen Tsai, Suran Dhanushka Kuruppu, Jia Yin Lim
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_346_17  
Background and Aims: Above knee amputation (AKA) is associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. There is paucity of data describing the use of peripheral nerve blocks (PNB) as the sole anesthetic technique in high-risk patients undergoing AKA. Our objectives were to evaluate the use of PNB as sole anesthetic technique in the above-mentioned population and its clinical outcomes. Material and Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted in a tertiary hospital. For this study, patients with American Society of Anesthesiologist [ASA] IV physical status underwent AKA using PNB between January 2010 and December 2016, were identified. The primary outcome measured was the success of the operation. The secondary outcomes were block details, intraoperative hemodynamics, usage of sedation and analgesia, patients' comorbidities, mortality rates at 30 days and one year. Results: Out of fifty-seven patients, the median age (interquartile range) was 74 (57 – 81) years and 60% were males. The results show 91% successfully underwent surgery with PNB (95% CI 81% to 96%). 95% required intraoperative sedation and analgesia. 67% received combined femoral, obturator and sciatic nerve blocks, in which nine cases had an additional lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block. Interestingly, 33% only received combined femoral and sciatic nerve blocks, and they required higher sedation analgesia (p = 0.013). The 30-day and one-year mortality were 12.3% & 47.4%. Majority had stable hemodynamics during the surgery. Conclusion: This study shows that PNB is a viable option for reliable anesthesia for AKA in high-risk patients. Combined FOS nerve block would reduce the dose for sedation–analgesia during the operation.
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Association between intravenous acetaminophen and reduction in intraoperative opioid consumption during transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumors p. 465
Upasana Banerjee, Katherine Hagan, Shreyas Bhavsar, Roxana Grasu, Anh Dang, Ian E McCutcheon, Miguel Suarez, Vijaya Gottumukkala, Juan P Cata
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_276_17  
Background and Aims: Pain during and after transsphenoidal surgeries originates from stimulation of branches of the trigeminal cranial nerve that supply the inner aspect of the nose cavity and dura mater. Thereby, patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery may require moderate-to-large amounts of analgesics including opioids. Intravenous acetaminophen provides analgesia and reduces opioid consumption for a wide variety of surgeries. We hypothesized that the use of intravenous acetaminophen is associated with a reduction in intraoperative opioid consumption and provides significant analgesia during and after transsphenoidal surgery. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included 413 patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas. The primary outcome of this study was intraoperative opioid consumption. Secondary outcomes included pain intensity, Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale scores, and nausea and vomiting upon arrival to postoperative anesthesia care unit. Patients were divided into two groups based on the intraoperative acetaminophen use. A prospensity score matching analysis was used to balance for important variables between the two groups of treatment. Regression models were fitted after matching the covariates. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: After matching, 126 patients were included in each group of treatment. Patients in the acetaminophen group required significantly less amount (a decrease by 14.9%) of opioids during surgery than those in the non-acetaminophen group. Postoperative pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and sedation scores were not significantly different between patients who received intravenous acetaminophen and those who did not. Conclusion: Intravenous acetaminophen is associated with a reduction in intraoperative opioids during transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.
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Transversus abdominis plane block supplementation during iliac crest bone graft harvesting – Effect on postoperative pain p. 472
Usha Shenoy, Vigil Peter, Philip Mathew, Tom Thomas
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_62_17  
Background and Aims: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a technique proposed to minimise pain after anterior iliac crest bone harvesting. This study aims to evaluate the postoperative pain in patients who receive ultrasound-guided TAP block to supplement routine wound infiltration. Material and Methods: A total of 143 patients aged between 6 and 22 years were randomised into two groups. Patients in group A received supplemental TAP block on the same side. Patients in group B received local anesthetic wound infiltration alone. Pain scores were compared at the first and 24th postoperative hours. Results: TAP block significantly reduced pain and delirium in the immediate postoperative period. The mean FLACC (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability) score after 10 min was 0.8 in group A versus 1.8 in group B (P = 0.001). The mean Watcha scale at 10 min was 1.0 in group A versus 1.2 in group B (P = 0.001). After 24 h, 81.7% of patients in group A had no pain versus 59.7% in group B (P = 0.004). The incidence of intolerable pain at 24 h was 5.6% in group B versus 0% in group A (P = 0.04). Cumulative ambulation scores were significantly better in group A (P < 0.05). There was a strong and positive correlation between the analgesia and ability to ambulate comfortably at 24 h postop (Pearson's coefficient 0.95). Conclusion: Supplemental ultrasound-guided TAP block given intraoperatively reduces the postoperative pain. The incidence of emergence delirium was low. These patients were also able to ambulate earlier.
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Postoperative pain management practices and their effectiveness after major gynecological surgery: An observational study in a tertiary care hospital p. 478
Samina Ismail, Ali S Siddiqui, Azhar Rehman
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_387_17  
Background and Aims: Despite advances in postoperative pain management, patients continue to experience moderate to severe pain. This study was designed to assess the strategy, effectiveness, and safety of postoperative pain management in patients undergoing major gynecological surgery. Material and Methods: This observational study included postoperative patients having major gynecological surgery from February 2016 to July 2016. Data collected on a predesigned data collection sheet included patient's demographics, postoperative analgesia modality, patient satisfaction, acute pain service assessment of numeric rating scale (NRS), number of breakthrough pains, number of rescue boluses, time required for the pain relief after rescue analgesia, and any complication for 48 h. Results: Among 154 patients reviewed, postoperative analgesia was provided with patient-controlled intravenous analgesia in 91 (59.1%) patients, intravenous opioid infusion in 42 (27%), and epidural analgesia in 21 (13.6%) patients with no statistically significant difference in NRS between different analgesic modalities. On analysis of breakthrough pain, 103 (66.8%) patients experienced moderate pain at one time and 53 (51.4%) at two or more times postoperatively. There were 2 (0.6%) patients experiencing severe breakthrough pain due to gaps in service provision and inadequate patient's knowledge. Moderate-to-severe pain perception was irrespective of type of incision and surgery. Vomiting was significantly higher (P = 0.049) in patients receiving opioids. Conclusion: Adequacy of postoperative pain is not solely dependent on drugs and techniques but on the overall organization of pain services. However, incidence of nausea and vomiting was significantly higher in patients receiving opioids.
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Ratio of height to thyromental distance as a predictor of difficult laryngoscopy: A prospective observational study p. 485
Suvarna Kaniyil, Krishnadas Anandan, Sanjith Thomas
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_283_17  
Background and Aim: Various airway indices are used either singly or in combination to predict difficult laryngoscopy. Recently introduced ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD) is reported to have better predictability. We aimed to assess the prediction of difficult laryngoscopy by RHTMD and compared it with other indices. Material and Methods: In this prospective, single-blinded comparative observational study, 300 adult patients of either gender scheduled to receive general anesthesia were assessed. Airway indices, like RHTMD, thyromental distance, modified Mallampati test, and upper lip bite test, were assessed and correlated with Cormack and Lehane's laryngoscopic grading. The validity parameters like specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were calculated for each test. Effect of combining all the indices was also analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed and optimal cutoff value for the quantitative indices was calculated. Results: The incidence of difficult laryngoscopy in our study was 5.33%. Of the four indices, the single best test was RHTMD, with better sensitivity, high specificity, NPV, and accuracy and with good PPV. A combination of all the indices resulted in 100% sensitivity and higher specificity. Conclusions: RHTMD is a single best preoperative test for predicting difficult laryngoscopy. A combination of tests has higher sensitivity and specificity with better discriminative power. Therefore indices should be used in combination in the preoperative airway assessment of adult patients.
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Assessment of awake i-gel™ insertion for fiberoptic-guided intubation in patients with predicted difficult airway: A prospective, observational study p. 490
Julian Arevalo Ludena, Jose Juan Arcas Bellas, Rafael Alvarez Rementeria, Luis Enrique Muñoz Alameda
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_329_15  
Background and Aims: Orotracheal intubation (OTI) with fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) in spontaneous ventilation is one of the main techniques for patients with predicted difficult airway. Latest generation supraglottic airway devices have been designed to allow OTI through them. We assessed the safety and effectiveness of FOB-guided OTI through i-gel™ device which was inserted in spontaneously breathing patients with predicted difficult airway. Material and Methods: Eighty-five patients with difficult airway predictors were included. The i-gel was inserted under oropharyngeal local anaesthesia and sedation. After checking the adequate ventilation through the i-gel with capnography curve, general anaesthesia was induced in order to introduce the endotracheal tube guided by FOB. We recorded the i-gel insertion time (tgel), intubation time (tint), O2 saturation in pulse oximetry (SpO2) at different times: basal (t0), after 3 min of preoxygenation with a face mask at 100% FiO2 (t1), after i-gel mask insertion (t2) and after intubation (t3). Adverse events during the procedure were also recorded. Results: All patients were successfully intubated. SpO2 values were: 96.9 ± 1.2 (t0), 99.0 ± 0.9 (t1), 96.2 ± 2.4 (t2), 96.0 ± 2.5 (t3). tgel and tint were 38.0 ± 7.8 s and 36.5 ± 5.6 s, respectively. No serious adverse events were recorded and no patient suffered airway trauma. Conclusion: I-gel insertion in spontaneous ventilation secures the airway before achieving fiberoptic intubation without the occurrence of adverse events. More studies might be necessary in order to confirm the results presented, but we consider that the technique described is a safe and effective alternative to classic OTI with FOB in spontaneously breathing patients with predicted difficult airway.
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Effect of adjunctive dexmedetomidine on anesthesia and analgesia requirement and recovery characteristics during Bispectral Index-guided anesthesia for cerebello-pontine angle surgeries: A randomized clinical trial p. 496
Dhritiman Chakrabarti, Sriganesh Kamath, KR Madhusudan Reddy, Deepti B Srinivas, Nitin Manohar, Dheeraj Masapu
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_55_18  
Background and Aims: The study was conceived to elucidate the effects of dexmedetomidine as an anesthetic adjunct to propofol (total intravenous anesthesia) on anesthetic dose reduction and anesthesia recovery parameters in cerebello-pontine angle (CPA) surgeries. Material and Methods: This prospective randomized study was conducted on 49 patients (25 with dexmedetomidine, 24 without). After standardized anesthetic induction, anesthesia was maintained using propofol (via target controlled infusion, titrated to maintain BIS between 40 and 60), fentanyl (0.5 μg/kg/hour) and either dexmedetomidine (0.5 μg/kg/hour) or a sham infusion. Neuromuscular blocking agents were excluded to allow cranial nerve EMG monitoring. Adverse hemodynamic events, recovery parameters (time to opening eyes, obeying commands, and extubation) and postoperative sedation score, shivering score, nausea, and vomiting score were recorded. Results: Propofol and fentanyl utilization (as total dose, adjusted for duration of surgery and body weight, and number of extra boluses) was significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group. There was no difference in any of the recovery parameters between the two groups. Incidence of bradycardia was significantly higher with dexmedetomidine, while no difference was found for hypotension, hypertension, and tachycardia. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine–fentanyl–propofol anesthesia compares favorably with fentanyl–propofol anesthesia during CPA neurosurgical procedures with regard to anesthesia recovery times, but with lower intraoperative opioid and hypnotic utilization rates.
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Evaluation of cerebral oxygen saturation during hypotensive anesthesia in functional endoscopic sinus surgery p. 503
Behrooz Farzanegan, Majid Golestani Eraghi, Samira Abdollahi, Jahangir Ghorbani, Ali Khalili, Reza Moshari, Alireza Jahangirifard
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_248_17  
Background and Aims: Controlled hypotensive anesthesia in endoscopic sinus surgery would provide a clean surgical field. Cerebral oxygen saturation (ScO2) is important in endoscopic sinus surgery patients and it may be low during controlled hypotension.The aim of the present study was to assess ScO2 in these patients. Material and Methods: In this observational study, 41 patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery with hypotensive anesthesia were enrolled for the study and all of the patients received the same anesthetic medication, nitroglycerin for controlled hypotension. Variables were measured prior to surgery, after induction of anesthesia, 5 min, and every 30 min after controlled hypotension. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used for ScO2 evaluation. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was maintained at 55–60 mmHg in the surgical duration. We used t-test, Wilcoxon, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). We examined the cross-correlation functions of the time series data between end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2)/MAP and ScO2. Results: The mean of intraoperative ScO2 was not significantly different from the baseline evaluation (P > 0.05). ETCO2 was cross correlated with current ScO2 [r: 0.618, confidence interval (CI) 95%: 0.46–0.78]. We found moderate cross correlation between the MAP and current ScO2 (r: 0.728, CI 95%: 0.56–0.88). About 92% of the patients recovered within 30 min. Recovery time was associated with intraoperative MAP (P: 0.004, r: 0.438), intraoperative ETCO2 (P: 0.003, r: 0.450), and ScO2(P: 0.026, r: 0.348). Conclusions: Based on our findings, the assessment of ScO2 and maintained MAP >55 mmHg may provide safe conditions for endoscopic sinus surgery.
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Venous pressure during intravenous regional anesthesia: Implications for setting tourniquet pressure p. 507
Borzoo Farhang, Alex C Lesiak, Daniel J Ianno, Hayk Minasyan, Adam B Shafritz, Christopher M Viscomi
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_69_16  
Background and Aims: Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) is utilized for upper extremity surgery, but higher tourniquet pressure and longer inflation time increase the risk of soft tissue and nerve injury. We investigated the duration and magnitude of elevated venous pressure during IVRA to assess the possibility of safely lowering the tourniquet pressure during surgery. Material and Methods: Twenty adult patients scheduled for distal upper extremity surgery were enrolled. An additional intravenous catheter was placed in the surgical arm connected to a digital pressure transducer for monitoring venous pressure. Venous pressure was recorded prior to IVRA and every 30 s after injection of local anesthetic (LA) until the completion of surgery. Results: All 20 subjects completed the study without complication. Peak venous pressure was 340 mmHg in one patient which lasted for less than 30 s. Mean venous pressures fell below systolic blood pressure after 4.5 min in all cases except one. This patient had elevated venous pressures for 24 of 25 min of tourniquet time exceeding systolic blood pressure. The only statistically significant intraoperative factor associated with elevated venous pressure was elevated peak systolic pressure (P = 0.001). Conclusions: We found that the mean peak venous pressure was below systolic blood pressure in only 14 of the 20 subjects, and the peak injection pressure exceeded 300 mmHg in one patient. Another patient's venous pressure remained above systolic blood pressure for 24 of 25 min of tourniquet time. Current precautions to prevent LA toxicity may be insufficient in some patients and attempts to lower tourniquet pressures to just above systolic blood pressures soon after IVRA injection may result in toxicity, specifically if systolic pressure is elevated.
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The effect of ampule size of fentanyl on perioperative intravenous opioid dosing p. 513
David M Rosenfeld, Kathleen E Knapp, Joshua A Spiro, Andrew W Gorlin, Harish Ramakrishna, Terrence L Trentman
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_17_18  
Background and Aims: There are limited data on the effect of ampule size on drug dosing. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of ampule size on perioperative opioid dosing and post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) outcomes. Material and Methods: This was a retrospective review of patients undergoing robotically assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy before and after a 5-ml fentanyl ampule was discontinued. The primary outcome was intraoperative opioid administration divided into fentanyl at induction of anesthesia, total fentanyl, and total opioid. Secondary outcomes observed in PACU included the opioid administered, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and length of stay in PACU. Results: A total of 100 patients (50 PRE and 50 POST) were included. In the intraoperative opioid administration, mean (SD) of fentanyl at induction was 117.0 (49.3) in PRE group and 85.0 (35.4) μg in POST group (P < 0.01). The total fentanyl requirement was 247.0 (31.0) in PRE group and 158.5 (85.1) μg in POST group (P < 0.01). The total opioid in intravenous morphine equivalents (IVME) was 34.1 (5.8) in PRE group and 23.2 (6.8) mg in POST group (P < 0.01). Among the secondary outcomes, mean (SD) of IVME of opioid was 7.7 (8.2) in PRE group and 9.9 (8.1) mg in POST group (P = 0.18). The VAS pain score on arrival was 0.7 (1.4) in PRE group and 3.8 (3.3) in POST group (P < 0.01). The cumulative VAS pain score was 2.3 (2.0) in PRE group and 3.3 (2.2) in POST group (P < 0.01). The length of stay was significantly more in POST group, 193.8 (75.8) minutes, as compared with PRE group, 138.6 (61.0) minutes (P < 0.01). Conclusions: A change in the ampule size significantly affected intraoperative dosing, PACU pain scores, and PACU length of stay in patients undergoing robotically assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy under general anesthesia. This was explained by clinician's desire to conserve the drug and avoid the complex process of narcotic waste disposal.
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Isobaric ropivacaine with or without dexmedetomidine for surgery of neck femur fracture under subarachnoid block p. 518
Lhamo Dolma, Rashmi Salhotra, Rajesh S Rautela, Ashim Banerjee
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_226_18  
Background and Aims: Dexmedetomidine has a promising role as an intrathecal adjuvant. However it's role as an adjuvant to ropivacaine has not been evaluated extensively. This study is designed to find out the effect of addition of dexmedetomidine 5 μg to isobaric ropivacaine 18.75 mg on block characteristics and hemodynamic parameters in patients undergoing surgeries for fracture neck of femur under subarachnoid block (SAB). Material and Methods: Sixty-one American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Class I or II patients between 18–60 years undergoing surgeries for fracture neck of femur under SAB were recruited and randomized into two groups. Thirty patients in Group RN received 2.5 ml isobaric ropivacaine 0.75% (18.75 mg) with 0.5 ml normal saline (NS) to make a total volume of 3 ml, while 31 patients in Group RD received 2.5 ml isobaric ropivacaine 0.75% with dexmedetomidine 5 μg diluted with NS to make a total volume of 3 ml. The block characteristics, hemodynamic parameters, and side effects were recorded in both the groups. Results: Patients in Group RD had significantly longer duration of sensory block (202.90 ± 50.2 min) compared to Group RN (157.33 ± 31.6 min), P < 0.001. Time to first rescue analgesia request was significantly longer in the Group RD compared to Group RN (265.16 ± 71.4 min vs 203.67 ± 35.6 min, respectively) (P < 0.001). However, the sensory block onset, maximum block height, time to two dermatomal regression, and motor block intensity remained unaltered. Incidence of side effects like hypotension, bradycardia, nausea, vomiting, and shivering were statistically similar in both the groups. Conclusion: Addition of 5 μg dexmedetomidine enhances the analgesic effect of intrathecal 18.75 mg isobaric ropivacaine for the conduct of fracture neck of femur surgeries with minimal adverse events.
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Effect of spinal flexion and extension in the lateral decubitus position on the unilaterality of spinal anesthesia using hyperbaric bupivacaine p. 524
Shrinivas Kulkarni, CL Gurudatt, Deepika Prakash, Jincy A Mathew
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_99_17  
Background and Aims: Many unilateral lower limb orthopedic surgeries are conducted under unilateral spinal anesthesia with full flexion of spine and immediate extension after local anesthetic administration into the subarachnoid space. Studies have shown that extension of the spine in lateral decubitous position makes cauda equina to sink to the dependent side due to gravity. Continuous flexion of the spine causes sunken cauda equina to be suspended in the middle of the subarachnoid space increasing the possibility of unilateralization of the block. Hence, this study was carried out to assess the effect of flexion and extension in lateral decubitus position in unilateral spinal anesthesia. Material and Methods: Sixty patients posted for elective unilateral lower limb below knee orthopedic surgeries were randomly allocated into two groups—group F (flexion of spine) and group E (extension of spine). Using a 25-gauge Quincke spinal needle, 8 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine was injected over a period of 80 s at L3–L4 interspace. Patients were kept in flexion or extension according to the group they belong to after drug administration. After 15 min of lateral position in either group, patients were turned to supine position. Sensory blockade was assessed by loss of pinprick sensation and motor blockade by modified Bromage scale. Results: Strict unilateral sensory block at 15th min was in 18 patients in flexion group compared with 11 patients in extension group which is statistically significant (p=0.03). At 60th min, there was no significant sensory unilaterality between the groups (p=0.06). A strict unilateral motor blockade at 15th min was also in 18 patients in group F and 11 patients in group E which was also statistically significant (p=0.04). At 60th min, seven patients in group F and three patients in group E had strict unilateral motor blockade which was also statistically significant (p=0.03). The maximum sensory level on the nondependent side was T10 in group F and T8 in group E, whereas it was T6 in both the groups on the dependent side. There was no difference in the two-segment regression of the sensory block, duration of sensory and motor blockade, the maximum level of the block, and hemodynamic status between the groups. Conclusion: Maintaining flexion of the spinal column for 15 min increases the likelihood of unilateral spinal block compared with extension of the spinal column during lateral decubitus positioning.
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Single intravenous bolus versus perioperative continuous infusion of tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss in abdominal oncosurgical procedures: A prospective randomized double-blind clinical study p. 529
Ramakrishna Prasad, Abhiruchi Patki, Shibany Padhy, Gopinath Ramchandran
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_122_17  
Background and Aims: Intraoperative use of a single bolus dose of tranexamic acid may not be sufficient to prevent bleeding in the early postoperative period. The present study was carried out to compare the effect of two dose regimens of tranexamic acid in reducing perioperative blood loss and the amount of allogenic blood transfusion in abdominal tumor surgery. Material and Methods: In this prospective, controlled, and double-blind investigation, 60 patients electively posted for abdominal oncosurgical procedures were randomly assigned to receive a single bolus dose of tranexamic acid (10 mg/kg) (Group A), a bolus dose of tranexamic acid (10 mg/kg) followed by infusion (1 mg/kg/h) till 4 h postoperatively (Group B), and a bolus followed by infusion of normal saline (group C). Total intraoperative blood loss, amount of allogenic blood transfusion, postoperative drain collections, and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were recorded at different time intervals. Data obtained after comparing three groups were analyzed by analysis of variance test for variables following normal distribution, Kruskal–Wallis test for nonparametric data, and post-hoc Tukey–Kramer test for intergroup analysis. A probability value of less than 5% was considered significant. Results: There was no significant difference in intraoperative blood loss in all the three groups. Both the tranexamic acid groups showed reduction in postoperative blood collection in drain at 6 h and 24 h in comparison to the control group (P < 0.001). There was also a significant difference in the amount of blood in postoperative drain at 24 h within the tranexamic acid groups, where lesser collection was seen in the infusion group (P = 0.007). Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels measured at different postoperative time intervals showed a significant reduction from the baseline in the control group compared to the tranexamic acid groups together. Conclusion: Tranexamic acid causes more effective reduction in post-operative blood loss when used as a bolus followed by an infusion continued in the postoperative period in comparison to its use as a single intravenous bolus in abdominal tumor surgery.
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Role of preoperative investigations in elderly patients undergoing oncosurgical procedures – A retrospective review audit p. 535
Bhagyalakshmi Ramesh, Viji S Pillai, Rachel C Koshy, KM Jagathnath Krishna
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_147_17  
Background and Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and usefulness of the current practice of various investigations and consultations being done during preanesthetic evaluation in patients undergoing oncosurgical procedures in our hospital. We also evaluated the delay caused due to these and its value in predicting postoperative complications. Material and Methods: The preanesthetic charts of 300 elderly patients >65 years of age were reviewed, and the incidence of abnormal investigations and number of consultations advised were noted. The incidence and predictive values of these were assessed. Results: More than half the number of patients had more than one comorbidity and were advised various consultations based on history, National Institute of Clinical and Health Excellence (NICE) guidelines, and institutional protocol. Multiple visits to preanesthetic clinic were required in patients who had abnormal thyroid tests or respiratory complaints which was the main reason for delay in scheduling surgery. However, despite multiple comorbidities not more than 12.7% of the blood tests ordered were found to be abnormal. Abnormal blood tests were not significantly associated with higher incidence of postoperative complications. Conclusion: Blood investigations do not predict postoperative complication rate and do not influence anesthetic management of elderly patients undergoing oncosurgical procedures but are rather influenced by surgical procedure and presence of comorbidities. Hence, preanesthetic clinic should assess patients based on other predictive tests rather than relying on blood investigations alone.
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COMMENTARIES Top

Elderly patients for cancer surgeries: How much to investigate! p. 539
Rakesh Garg
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_103_18  
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Sepsis-3: How useful is the new definition? p. 542
Sharmili Sinha, Banambar Ray
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_335_16  
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FORUM ARTICLE Top

Transcoccygeal neurolytic ganglion impar block for perineal pain: A case series p. 544
KB Nalini, Shivakumar Shivanna, MS Vishnu, C. V. R. Mohan
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_301_16  
Background and Aims: Chronic perineal pain (CPP) is a poorly localized pain. Its etiology may be benign or malignant. The ganglion impar is a solitary retroperitoneal structure at sacrococcygeal junction. It provides the nociceptive and sympathetic supply to the perineal structures. CPP has been effectively managed by ganglion impar block. Here, we describe a case series of neurolytic ganglion impar block by transcoccygeal approach, analyzing its safety and efficacy. Material and Methods: In this study, five consecutive patients who were given ganglion impar block for CPP using a transcoccygeal approach were followed up for 2 months. The visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain at presentation, time required for the pain to reduce by 50% after the block, VAS during a 2-month follow-up, time required to perform the procedure, number of attempts, and any complications were noted. Results: All the five patients had an excellent pain relief. The mean duration for decrease in VAS by 50% was 14.8 ± 3.1 min. The mean duration to perform the procedure was 10.2 ± 1.5 min. There were no complications. All the patients had clinically significant pain relief with VAS score of 2 till 2-month follow-up. Conclusion: Transcoccygeal ganglion impar block may offer a safe and effective treatment option for CPP as compared to opioids. This approach for neurolysis of the ganglion impar may be recommended in view of the direct course, appreciable end point, and smaller volume of neurolytic requirement.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Response to: “Tanezumab: Therapy targeting nerve growth factor in pain pathogenesis” p. 548
Leslie A Tive, Lars Viktrup, David Shelton
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_155_18  
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Incidental detection of idiopathic internal jugular vein thrombus in pediatric patient-lessons learnt! p. 548
Narmadhalakshmi Kannabiran, Chitra Rajeswari Thangaswamy
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_158_17  
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Beware of upper airway obstruction in warfarinized patients p. 550
Tiarnan Magos, Martyn Barnes
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_116_16  
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Low-cost teaching aid: A modification of Macintosh blade into a video laryngoscope for teaching laryngoscopy and intubation p. 552
Anil K Narayan, AL Janardhan, Avinash Prakash, Sarasa K Sahoo
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_337_17  
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Videolaryngoscope-assisted nasotracheal intubation: Another option! p. 554
Nishkarsh Gupta, Anju Gupta
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_183_16  
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Venous air/oxygen embolism due to hydrogen peroxide in anal fistulectomy p. 555
Shashi Kiran, Sanjay Marwah, Teena Bansal, Neha Gupta
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_11_18  
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New onset aortic regurgitation p. 557
Monish S Raut, Arun Maheshwari
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_8_16  
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Proseal laryngeal mask airway with stylet in drain tube technique in a child with Sturge–Weber syndrome p. 559
Manpreet Singh, Nitin Ahuja, Puja Saxena, Swati Mehta
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_351_17  
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Neonate with congenital cystic adenoid malformation of lung for lobectomy: Anesthesia concerns p. 561
Vrushali Rajgire, Sushama Raghunath Tandale, Kalpana Kelkar, Rahul Band
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_393_17  
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Anesthetic concerns for rigid bronchoscopic debulking of tracheal growth in postpneumonectomy patient p. 563
Vinod Kumar, Rakesh Garg, Rajiv Mishra, Nishkarsh Gupta
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_391_16  
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Use of erector spinae plane block in open abdominal surgery and cancer pain p. 564
Vasanth Rao Kadam, Medhat Wahba
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_366_17  
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Sphenopalatine ganglion block: A newer modality for management of postdural puncture headache p. 567
Deepak Singla, Mishu Mangla
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_64_17  
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Yet another PECS usage: A continuous PECS block for anterior shoulder surgery p. 569
Matteo Bossolasco, Lucia Maria Fenoglio
DOI:10.4103/joacp.JOACP_12_18  
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