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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 168-172

Comparison of the effect of lignocaine instilled through the endotracheal tube and intravenous lignocaine on the extubation response in patients undergoing craniotomy with skull pins: A randomized double blind clinical trial

1 Department of Anesthesia, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Grace Korula
Department of Anaesthesia Christian Medical College Vellore, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0970-9185.111668

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Background: A desirable combination of smooth extubation and an awake patient after neurosurgical procedures is difficult to achieve in patients with skull pins. Lignocaine instilled into endotracheal tube has been reported to suppress cough by a local mucosal anesthetizing effect. We aimed to evaluate if this effect will last till extubation, if given before pin removal. Materials and Methods: A total of 114 patients undergoing elective craniotomy were divided into three groups and were given 1 mg/kg of intravenous (IV), 2% lignocaine (Group 1), placebo (Group 2) and 1 mg/kg of 2% lignocaine sprayed down the endotracheal tube (Group 3) before skull pin removal. The effectiveness of each to blunt extubation response was compared. Plasma levels of lignocaine were measured 10 min after administration of the study drug and at extubation. Sedation scores were noted, immediately after extubation and 10 min later. Results: Two percent of lignocaine instilled through endotracheal route was not superior to the IV route or placebo in attenuating cough or hemodynamic response at extubation when given 20-30 min before extubation. The plasma levels of lignocaine (0.8 μg/ml) were not high enough even at the end of 10 min to have a suppressive effect on cough if given IV or intratracheally (IT). Lignocaine did not delay awakening in these groups. Conclusion: IT lignocaine in the dose of 1 mg/kg does not prevent cough at extubation if given 20-30 min before extubation. If the action is by a local mucosal anesthetizing effect, it does not last for 20-30 min to cover the period from pin removal to extubation.

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